IMO, going from 16's to 17's won't do any difference, for the simple reason that you can buy a S or SL which comes with 16's stock and then you get the 3.5SE with 17's stock....so by Nissan standards you should be Ok,
You'll notice a difference if you go 18's or bigger, not much more road noise, but the drive will be a bit more bumpy...i'm going with 19's this summer, with a ProKit installed, I think it will make a difference, but nothing like my old car was with Sportlines installed on it...damn thing was like riding a train...!!!
We went up 2 inches from 17's. The ride is different, of course anything other than what you are used to is different.
I find the ride is better now control-wise, it is a little more louder when it comes to the daily driving noise, but highway seems the same. We haven'e went far enough to notice any gas mileage difference yet.
I would assume going to 17" from 16", that you would even notice less a change than we have.