Do you understand? That plug is only for auxiliary/aux/sound, Nothing to do with carplay. The missing wirings on the harness also don't have anything to do with carplay, the antenna Doesn't have anything to do with carplay.Does that plug need to be connected/ modified for CarPlay to work?
The only and 1 thing that is needed for carplay to work is the black plug behind the radio that is For USB. That's it. Carplay is Built-in so you Don't need anything else for carplay to work.
You already tried with and Android and it worked, so if that worked then carplay should have worked too, but since it did not work for you, then is either a problem with your device or your usb cable.